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Vedic scriptures complete with explanations

Vedic and its explanation

The Vedas are the holy book of Hinduism, the Vedas are not a scary scripture, nor a scripture that will cause bad things for its readers. Vedic is a book on theological, philosophical, ritual and many more knowledge. Yajurweda himself has said that Vedic teachings should be conveyed rather than kept or monopolized by only one faction.

“Yathemam vacam kalyanim avadani janebyahBrahma
rajanyabhyam sudraya caryayaCa
svaya caranaya ca” -Yajurveda XXVI.2

Meaning:
It should be delivered this holy word to all mankind, scholars, kings-governments-people, merchants-farmers-fishermen-laborers, to my people and to even strangers.

Understanding and language of the Vedas

Veda (Bhs ID = Vedic) comes from the urate of the verb Vid meaning “to know” and Vedic meaning “knowledge”.
In the semantic sense, Vedic means holy knowledge, true truth, supreme policy or true spiritual knowledge of eternal truth. As a source of knowledge, the Vedas existed long before the start of the year AD.

Vedic literature uses Sanskrit. At first the name of the language “Sanskrit” was popularized by Maharsi Panini, who in addition to using the sanskrit name baahsa, also called Vedic language “daivivak”, which means the language of the gods.

In the next few years, Maharsi Patanjali wrote a book criticizing Maharsi Panini’s work that further refined sanskrit. Another writer is Katyayana, who in Indonesia is known as Rsi Wararuci with one of his books that has been translated in Indonesia, namely Saracamuccaya.

After going through such a long journey, Sanskrit then underwent some fundamental changes, where there has been a sub-sub-sanskrit language.

Vedic

Types of Sanskrit

There are three types of Sanskrit known today.

  1. Vedic Sanskrit (Vedic Sanskrit) is sanskrit spoken in Vedic.
  2. Classical Sanskrit is a Sanskrit language used in Hindu books that are younger than the Vedas such as Itihasa, Purana, Smrti and so on.
  3. Mixed Sanskrit (Hybrid Sanskrit), is a Sanskrit language that has gained a strong influence from local languages.

In Indonesia and Southeast Asia, the Umayrood Archipelago (Sanskrit) developed which was heavily influenced by the Malay language.

Research on Sanskrit has actually been done a long time before. By the beginning of the XVII century in Europe had begun attempts to study Sanskrit, with the zending motifs of Christian and Catholic teachings. Some of them are Dr. Max Muller, Weber, Sir William Jones, HT. Colebrooke and many others. Concerningly, none of these studies were aimed at developing Hinduism.

In all Hindu literature, the Vedas occupy the highest position. It is believed that this is because only the Vedas have been revealed since the beginning of the sense of time. From the vedas then flow to other books. Against this understanding, Swami Dayananda Saraswati said, Rgveda, Yajurveda, Samaveda and Atharwaveda are the word of God.

The reference to this thought is

Tasmad Yajnat sarvahutaRcah
samani jajnireChandami
jajnire tasmadYajus
tasmad ajayata. -Yajurveda XXX.7

From God the Great and to him mankind offers various yadnya and from it comes Rgveda and Sama veda. From it appeared yajurveda and Samaveda.

Our Vedic process of revelation

In the process of revelatory of the Vedas, there are several known ways, including

  1. Svaranada, an echo received by the Rsi who later became god’s sadba which was then conveyed to his disciples.
  2. Upanisad, the mind of the Rsi entered by the word Brahman and serves as a liaison in the educational condition of “Param-para”
  3. Darsana or Darsanam, where the Rsi are spiritually confronted in a supernatural situation of a spiritual nature.
  4. Avatara, which is a human being who is dealing with his awatara, such as Arjuna with Sri Krsna in Bhagavadgita.

Types of Vedic scriptures

Shruti (“what is heard”) – a record of revelation about the nature of existence as the Vedic writers “heard” and recorded it in the book.
Smrti (“what is remembered”) – the stories of great heroes from the past and how they succeeded – or failed – to carry out duties/obligations according to the will of Eternal Destiny.

The manuscript describing Shruti is contained in the Four Vedas (Vedic Chess):

  1. Vedic Rig – the oldest Vedic book, containing a collection of hymns or verses.
  2. Same Vedic – notes, rapalan and liturgical hymns (mass worship).
  3. Yajur Vedda – ritual order, mantra, rapalan
  4. Atharwa Vedda – jampi/mantra (spells), rapalan, hymn/verse, prayer

Each of the above books is further separated into several types:

  • Aranyaka – ritual, worship.
  • Brahmin – a review of the rituals and ordinances of worship that describe the ritual.
  • Samhita – blessings, prayers, mantras.
  • Upanishads – philosophical reviews of the meaning of life and Vedicda.

The manuscripts that include Smrti are:

  • Purana – folklore and legends/mythologies about various figures from the past.
  • Ramayana – the story of Sri Rama’s heroism and his journey to self-actualization.
  • Mahabharata – the story of the heroism of the five Pandavas and the war against kurawa.
  • Bhagawad Gita – a popular story about darma from Krishna to Arjuna.
  • Yoga Sutra – a review of the various disciplines of yoga and self-liberation

Vedic has several other names, including;

  1. The Book of Rahasya, which means Vedic contains teachings that are confidential. The secret here contains the understanding of divine teachings about creation, moksa and others.
  2. The Book of Religion, which means that the truth contained by the Vedas is absolute and must be believed to be true.
  3. The Book of Mantras, this name is given because the vedas are indeed in the form of sets of spells and hymns/ hymns.

Characteristics of the Vedic scriptures

Vedic has several characteristics namely;

  1. The Vedas did not begin, because it was the word of God, so it existed before nature was created.
  2. The Vedas do not end, because they apply throughout the ages.
  3. Vedic Apauruseyam, which means it is not composed by ordinary people.

It should be emphasized here that the vedas were initially received orally (without the use of books in the inheritance process), and passed on also orally. The process of preparing Vedic scriptures in literary language, started by Krsnadvapayana or also known as Maharsi Vyasa. He was assisted by 4 students, namely Pulaha or Paila who are believed to compile Rgveda, Vaisampayana who compiled Yajurveda, Jaimini who compiled Samaveda and Sumantu who compiled Atharvaveda.

Sapta Rsi recipient of Vedic Revelation

While rsi-rsi which is associated with the process of revelation of the vedas was originally known as the Saptarsi group. The most mentioned saptarsi and gotra sapta rsi in this process are

  1. Rsi Grtsamada, which is widely mentioned in conjunction with the descent of wahtu-wahyu on Rgveda Mandala II.
  2. Rsi Visvamitra, which is associated with the entire Mandala III Rgveda.
  3. Rsi Vamadeva, which is associated with Mandala IV Rgveda.
  4. Rsi Atri, which is related to Mandala V Rgveda. In the family (Gotra) Rsi Atri mentioned that there are 36 recipients of revelation.
  5. Rsi Bharadvaja, which is widely associated with the descent of Mandala VI Rgveda, except for some parts associated with the names Sahotra and Sarahotra.
  6. Rsi Vasistha, who is related to Mandala VII Rgveda. In mahabrata story, rsi is also often likened to Rsi Visvamitra.
  7. Rsi Kanva, which is a personal name and surname that is widely associated with mandala VIII Rgveda. Mandalas IX and X are a collection of revelations received by several other Rsi. Mandala X is the most complete.

Forms and rules of writing

Vedic, written in Sanskrit, has a special form in writing. The form of writing Vedic song is called Chanda. This is a term similar to metrum (Wirama) which is a rule about the number of syllables in a line and a Vedic mantram.

The number of syllables counted is a syllable whose consonant is followed by the letter svara (Vowel) including the letter aspirat (visarga = h) and nasal sound (anusvasra = m). The Vedic mantram line is also determined by the short light and long heavy rhythms called Master and Laghu. Traditionally, the metrums are distinguished by 2 types, namely the usual and the long.

The usual Metrum – Jml Syllable1
. Gayatri……………………………………………… 24 (8+8+8)
2. Usnih……………………………………………………………….. 28 (7+7+7+7)
3. Anustubh………………………………………………… 32 (8+8+8+8)
4. Brhati………………………………………………………………. 36 (9+9+9+9)
5. Pankti………………………………………………………………. 40 (8+8+8+8+8)
6. Tristubh………………………………………………………………….. 44 (11+11+11+11)
7. Jagati……………………………………………………………….. 48 (12+12+12+12)

The long one – jml syllable1
. Atijagati……………………………………………………….. 52 (12+12+12+8+8)

2. Sakvari……………………………………………………………… 56 (8+8+8+8+8+8+8)

3. Atisakvari………………………………………………… 60 (16+16+12+8+8)

4. Asti………………………………………………….. 64 (16+16+16+8+8)

5. Atyasti………………………………………………………………. 68 (12+12+8+8+8+12+8)

6. Dhrti…………………………………………………………… 72 (12+12+8+8+8+16+8)

7. Atidhrti……………………………………………………………… 76 (12+12+8+8+8+12+8+8)

In addition to the standard metrum, the vedas also know various variations of the metrum. An explanation of other variations of metrum can be seen in the book I Made Titib, “Vedas of the Holy Word”.

The content of the Vedas is very diverse, but basically the Vedas talk about knowledge that is very basic.

Ko addha veda ka iha pra vocatKuta
ajata kuta iyam visrstihArvag
deva asyavisarjanenathaKo
veda yatha abhuva. -Rgveda X.129.6

Who really knows, who is able to explain, where was he born and where did the creation come from? Surely the gods later from the creation of this realm. Who knows the origin of this creation?

The Vedas talk about the concept of divinity, which in Vedic language is deva or devata. The meaning of “deva or devata” here is not the same as the meaning of “god” in Indonesian.

Swami Dayananda Sarasvati said the meaning or meaning of the word god includes the same two meanings. The difference between God (God) and Deva (Deva) is, all gods or devatas receive light from God, while God emits his own rays.

The various gods in Hinduism are to make it easier to imagine God in its various manifestations. Regarding the Oneness of God, Yajurveda says:

Yo ‘asav aditye purusahSo
asav aham. Om Kham BrahmaYajurveda
XI.17

The spirit in the sun is me. Om (My name) fills the entire universe.

Number of Gods – Goddesses in the Vedas

The books of Rgveda and Atharvaveda mention 33 gods who are manifestations of God. The 33 gods, are 8 Vasu, 11 Rudra, 12 Aditya and coupled with Indra and Prajapati.

Yasya trayastrimsad deva ange sarva samahitahSkambham
tam bruhi katamah videva sahAtharvaveda
X.7.23

Who is so much, tell me, is none other than the God who permeates everything, who in him conceived all 33 gods as a force of nature.

If we read further the other mantras of Rgveda, then we will know that the number of gods in the Vedas is not only 33, but as many as 3339. This is explained by Rgveda.

Trini sata tri sahasranyagnim trimsanccaDeva
nava casaparyan auksan ghrtairastrnanBarhirasma
adiddhotaram nyasadyantaRgveda
III. 9.9

Meaning: Is three thousand three gods, thirty-nine gods who worship agni (God). Who has spread the holy grass with splashed oil and raised them as pandita and executor of yadnya.

Among these gods, Rgveda described Surya as the supreme god with mantram.

Udvayam tamasaspari jyotis pasyanta uttaramDevam
devatra suryamaganma jyotiuttamamRgveda
I.50.10

Arinya: Look at the towering trimmed, the bright light overcoming the darkness has come. He is Surya, the god of all gods, his bright light is how beautiful it is.

The solar referred to here is not the “Solar Ball of the Sun” but the highest devata. In the Vedas, god is basically another name or other form of Surya (God), and devi is the feminine aspect of devata.

The word “Devi” means dawn in the morning. Gods and goddesses in the vedas are often described Anthrophomorphicly (human-like in appearance with various advantages and advantages, accompanied by vehicles and animals that pull the vehicle).

Vedic Chess

The concept of divinity in the Vedas

In practice, only a few gods are generally revered, this is because in the Upanisad era, there has been a transition of function from so many gods to the Trimurti form as it is known today. Trimurti’s most revered concepts are Brahma, Visnu and Siva.

In the discussion of the above models of gods, it can be known that the Vedas adhere to the concept of Monism or as David Frawley said, “One in everything and everything in one”. But it must also be criticized that in addition to embracing Monism, the Vedas also adhere to Transcendent Monotheism and Immanent Monotheism. An explanation of the three terms will be explained below, accompanied by various other theological models that are not embraced by the vedas.

  1. Animism, the belief in the existence of the spirit, and everything is inhabited and ruled by different spirits.
  2. Dynamism, the belief in the power of nature, this power can be personal or non-personal.
  3. Totemism, the belief in the existence of a sacred animal that is highly respected.
  4. Polytheism is the belief in the existence of many Gods.
  5. Natural Polytheism, the belief in the existence of many Gods who are rulers over all aspects of nature.
  6. Henotheism or Kathenoism, Max Muller put this up when studying Vedic. This is a model of belief in the supreme transfer of power among the gods.
  7. Pantheism, the belief that everywhere and anything is God.
  8. Monotheism, the belief in the existence of one God; Transcendent monotheism, a belief that views God far from his creation, outside of his creation. Immanent monotheism, the belief that sees God as the supreme ruler is beyond his creation and is in his creation.
  9. Monism, the belief in the existence of God which is the nature of nature, and all things are in Him.

As explained above, Vedic theology is Monism, Transcendent Monotheism and Immanent Monotheism. In the view of Transcendent Monotheism, God always appears in Personal form whereas in the Immanent Monotheism model, God is described as impersonal God.

In addition to discussing the concept of divinity, the vedas also discussed several other things that Maurice Winternitz categorized as follows.

  1. Samhita, which is a Vedic mantra that contains upasana mantras, philosophical teachings, morals, education and others.
  2. Brahmin, which is a long description of theology, especially observations about the course of the yadnya ceremony.
  3. Aranyaka and Upanisad contain teachings on Hindu philosophy and meditation.

Source; google.com – Hindu Literature – Made Titib